A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Micro-organisms catabolize compounds such as glucose acetate, butyrate or wastewater The electrons gained from this oxidation are transferred to an anode, where they depart through an electrical circuit before reaching the cathode. Here they are transferred to a high potential electron acceptor such as oxygen. As current now flows over a potential difference, power is generated directly from biofuel by the catalytic activity of bacteria.

A microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms . A typical microbial fuel cell consists of anode and cathode compartments separated by a cation specific membrane. In the anode compartment, fuel is oxidized by microorganisms, generating electrons and protons. Electrons are transferred to the cathode compartment through an external electric circuit, and the protons are transferred to the cathode compartment through the membrane. Electrons and protons are consumed in the cathode compartment, combining with oxygen to form water. In general, there are two types of microbial fuel cells, mediator and mediator-less microbial fuel cells. Biological fuel cells take glucose and methanol from food scraps and convert it into hydrogen and food for the bacteria.


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